Click here to download the Research Planning Matrix. Each of the different research designs is defined for you. To complete the matrix, you must find an example of each type of research design. That is, you must find a journal article that fits into each category. In the Examples column of your matrix, place a web link or a citation in the APA format for each article. After you have located the articles, you must identify the data collection techniques used by each author, the quantitative and qualitative elements of each article, and the chief characteristics of each article. Please note that the first example, survey research, has been completed as an example.
•Access the Research Planning Matrix and review the topics to be addressed.
•Complete the matrix so that the end product compares the different research designs, data collection techniques, and quantitative and qualitative elements, as well as the chief characteristics of each research design.
•Prepare a synthesis statement that outlines the most significant similarities and differences observed among the items shown in the matrix.

You will submit two documents for this assignment: the completed Research Planning Matrix, which will be submitted as a Microsoft Excel worksheet, and a synthesis statement, which will be submitted as a Microsoft Word document.

Submission Details:
•Save the matrix as M2_A2_Lastname_Firstname.xls and the Microsoft Word document as M2_A2_Lastname_Firstname.doc.

Assignment 2 Grading Criteria

Maximum Points

Defined each type of research design.

Identified data collection techniques, quantitative and qualitative elements, and chief characteristics of each research design.

Categorized each example appropriately.

Prepared an effective synthesis statement that outlines the most significant similarities and differences observed among the items shown in the matrix.

Wrote in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrated ethical scholarship in the accurate representation and attribution of sources; and displayed accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation.


Research Design Definition Data Collection Techniques Quantitative Elements Qualitative Elements Chief Characteristics Examples
Survey In survey research, typically a target population is asked a set of questions. Data is often collected by mailing surveys or questionnaires, conducting telephone or face-to-face interviews, and sometimes using Internet surveys. Data from survey responses is reported in the findings of the research. Household surveys asking respondents to report crime experiences within the previous six months Data generated from survey responses Online survey documentation and analysis Includes information on crimes and crime victims that was not reported to the police Research using the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) National Archive of Criminal Justice Data:
Historical Historical research is a systematic method that examines past events in an effort to accurately describe and account for what happened in the past. Collection of historical facts, dates, figures, and events Social Event, Over a Time Period, Analysis of Past Event
Existing Document Existing document research involves the collection and reanalysis of existing quantitative data. Typically, the data has already been published. Collection and reanalysis of existing data such as crime data, economic data, and government survey research Reanalysis of data, answers a research question, crime, economic and existing government data
Legal Legal research is the systematic collection and analysis of law-related documents in order to generate knowledge about a given crime and justice subject. Analysis and collection of judicial decisions, legislative statutes, legislative histories, and law journal articles Involves the analysis of legal documents, legal cases, and judicial decisions
Ethnographic Field Ethnographic field research is a method in which the researcher engages the natural environment of the research subjects and strives for a personal and highly detailed understanding of the research subjects’ culture. Selection of a social group or site, adoption of a social role, and use of the observation technique by researchers Engages the natural environment Cultural Events Social group Focus
Experimental In experimental research, the people being studied are divided into two or more groups, a treatment is applied to one of the groups, and it is determined whether there are any differences in the reactions of the groups over a set period of time. Use of laboratories, groups, or real-life settings in determining program effectiveness Involves group analysis, the application of treatment, and the identification of differences
Mixed Methods Mixed-method research describes any study or series of studies in which a mixture of quantitative and qualitative techniques is applied to the same topic. Collection of information using field, historical, legal, and qualitative and quantitative sources Combines quantitative and qualitative techniques
Field In field research, natural social events are observed and analyzed as they occur and are left undisturbed by the researcher. Collection of information through observation of, participation in, and reporting of events Involves direct observation, inference, and note taking
Interview Interview research is a method that involves a joint venture between a researcher and a person whose insight, feelings, and cooperation are essential elements. Interview research reveals subjective meanings. "Physical record of statements of a common
theme for analysis" Involves getting the subjects’ cooperation and understanding the subjects’ feelings
Cross-Sectional Applied Any study that examines information on many cases at one point in time can be described as cross-sectional, applied research. Collection of information across a cross section of time periods for a particular issue or event Is exploratory and descriptive and examines information
Longitudinal Any research that examines information from many units or cases across more than one point in time can be described as longitudinal research. Collection of data from various time periods and review of that data for trends and cause and effect Involves data collection over fixed time periods
Time Series Longitudinal research in which information can be about different cases or people in each of several time periods is known as time-series research. Reliance on preexisting data sets analyzing certain conditions over time Analyzes periods of time
Quasi-Experimental Quasi-experimental designs are a form of experimental research that may be stronger than pure experimental designs. They are variations on the classical experimental design, but they do not include randomization and they also sometimes lack a pretest or control group. Collection of preexisting data on situations in the criminal justice system Is a comparison group with no random assignment
Non-Reactive Nonreactive research is the unobtrusive collection of data that has usually been left behind by others. Use of data that other researchers have left behind for analysis Involves unobtrusive data collection and analysis of previous research
Expert Witness Expert witness research is conducted for the purpose of presenting findings or testimony to the courts as a part of some legal proceeding. Use of knowledge-based data from specialized training in developing expertise in a particular area Is specialized information that is scientific
Content Analysis Content analysis is a nonreactive research method used to examine the content, information, or symbols contained in written documents or other media. Collection of material from information documents such as movies, advertisements, lyrics, and photos Is a nonreactive technique that examines existing documents
Exploratory Exploratory research is conducted to examine a little-understood issue or phenomenon. The primary purpose of this research is to develop new ideas and move toward more refined research questions. Collection of information on an issue or idea and its empirical analysis Investigates new crime and justice areas
Descriptive The primary purpose of descriptive research is to “paint” a picture using words or numbers and to present a profile, a classification, or steps to answer questions such as who, when, where, or how. Use of existing numbers to determine relationships among variables Explains a detailed relationship
Explanatory Explanatory research refers to any research in which the primary purpose is to explain why events occur and to build, elaborate on, or test a theory. Investigation of new crime and justice areas Explains why certain events occur
Evaluation The primary purpose of evaluation research is to assess the effectiveness of a program, policy, or way of doing something. Collection of data on current program working conditions and effectiveness Determines program effectiveness